gas analyzer that works on the principle of paramagnetism, a property which makes the element to align in the direction of the magnetic field. oxygen exhibits paramagnetism and nitrogen exhibits diamagnetism.

Programmable Logic Controller used to control, measure and run plants or building HVAC or shop floors according to the process requirements.


Graphical representation of an array of data shown either on a graph or a chart 


Profibus is communication standard used for data communication between field and controlling system like PLC or dcs


A Collection of automation files and software based compiler files that you can use to create build specifications and deploy or download to target systems.


Microprocessor-based instrumentation that can be programmed, has memory, is capable of performing calculations and self-diagnostics and reporting faults, and can be communicated with from a remote location.

Root Mean Square

The minimum and maximum values specified for the instrument in that process. range = max - min


its a device which is used to convert one signal to another digitally. It is used to isolate a digital signal of less voltage from high voltage.


Resource Block is the function block which contains parameters related to instrument build and manufacturers factory settings and all available features of an FF transmitter or Value.

Redundancy as a concept is maintained in indsutries wherein a similar controller,I/O card, server of identical characterstic is kept running in parallel with the primary one. this helps in running 24 x 7 plants so that even if one device fails the other one takes over the control.

Resolution is the smallest change in a measured value that a device can detect (Resolution is also known as sensitivity). Precision and resolution are linked but just because an instrument has 7 digits of resolution, it does not mean that the instrument has extremely high precision. In order to reliably meet an accuracy specification, an instrument must have sufficient resolution. For example, an instrument with a FS of 1 bar and an accuracy of 0.01% FS can reliably measure down to 0.1 mbar, so the display should have enough digits of resolution to display a change in pressure of 0.1 mbar.

Sealed gauge sensors are absolute pressure sensors. These sensors measure pressure relative to a vacuum. This type of sensor is then calibrated to read zero at 1 bar absolute.

Span is the maximum range between the lowest point and the highest point. For example for a range of -1 to +1 the span is 2; for a range of 0 to +1 the span is 1. If the precision is quoted as a % of span the same error can be a smaller number than if quoted as a % of full scale (FS).

Stability is the change of output over time. It is quoted at reference conditions, so a sensor that is cycled across temperature, or held at a high temperature, may shift more than the stability number due to the effect of temperature on performance over time.
• On a gauge device - zero drift requires calibration to correct, this is normally performed by equalising the positive port with the reference port (i.e. Both ports open to atmospheric pressure) and adjusting the reading to zero.
• On an absolute device - zero drift requires calibration to correct, this can be performed by using a good reference standard, the device zero reading is adjusted to match the reading of the reference.
• On an absolute and a gauge device - span drift requires calibration to correct, this can only be performed by using a pressure/vacuum source and a reference standard, the device span reading is adjusted to match the reading of the reference.

A motor starter is a combination of devices used to start, run, and stop an induction motor based on commands from an operator or a controller. The motor starter must have at least two components to operate: a contactor to open or close the flow of energy to the motor, and an overload relay to protect the motor against thermal overload.

Transmission lines are used to transmit electric energy and signals from one point to another, specifically from a source to load. Examples are interconnects between a transmitter and an antenna, cable service provider and your television set. These examples are common in the sense that devices to be connected are separated by distances on the order of wavelength or much large. So here we deal with wave phenomena on transmission lines because sufficiently large distances may lead to delay induced phase differences. The basic elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors are called lumped elements if the time delay in transmitting the elements are negligible. This means that these elements are measured by per-unit-distance basis. Transmission lines have a property that they become circuit elements in themselves, possessing impedances that contribute to the circuit we have to consider that elements as distributed if the propagation delay across elements are of the order of the shortest time interval.



Paramagnetic Oxygen Analyser










Smart Instrumentation







Resource Block





Sealed Guage Sensor



Starter/Motor Starter


Transmission Lines

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